Omega - 3 Fatty Acids and Immune System 

There is a plethora of ongoing research on the effects of omega-3 FAs and its modifications to the immune system. Omega - 3 FAs are considered to be a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which upregulates the activation of immune cells specifically in macrophages, neutrophils, T-cells, B-cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Omega - 3 FA plays a role in the host cellular membrane which regulates membrane fluidity and intricate lipid raft assembling .

This is demonstrated in the Omega - 3 FAs also increase the function of neutrophils which are the first responders of infection in the body. The study showed that omega-3 FAs incorporate phospholipids of the cell membrane of neutrophils and produce different mediators such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and maresins. In addition, neutrophils strengthen the immune function by promoting neutrophil migration, phagocytic capacity, and production of reactive free radicals to kill microbes. Omega - 3 FAs help activate the function of T cells by promoting antigen-presenting cells (APC), for example, macrophages or dendritic cells. Subsequently, that promotes activation of different subgroups of T cells such as CD4 cells, Th17 cells, and regulatory T cells. B cells are also activated by omega-3 FAs, producing more antibodies utilizing heavy chain immunoglobulin rearrangements and further differentiation. The study claims that omega-3 FAs also increase the population of B cells in the study mice. Omega - 3 improves the function of the macrophages by secreting cytokines and chemokines, promoting the ability of phagocytosis, and activating macrophages by polarization .

Moreover, the Omega-3 FA has appeared to block the activity of NF-κB through decreasing the degradation of the inhibitory subunit of the NF-κB called IkB, in cultured pancreatic cells and human monocyteds. Since NF-κB is responsible for cytokine production in immune cells, by blocking that pathway, its decreasing cytokine storm, and complication. Omega - 3 FAs are also known to down-regulate NF-κB. NF-κB is considered to be a transcription factor involved in cell signaling to initiate an inflammatory response by the innate immune system. Furthermore, Omega - 3 FAs intake upregulates vagal response which in turn down-regulates inflammation and cytokine production. To our understanding Omega - 3 FAs have multiple effects on the inflammatory response; however, analytic data has not yet recognized its role in critically ill patients. Future research may indicate that supplementation of Omega - 3 FA fish oils may play a crucial role in SARS-CoV-2 treatment .